Chinchero today is a district of the province of Urubamba, which has a population exceeding 15 thousand inhabitants. It is composed of twelve indigenous communities that fairly keep the social of the ayllus organization system, although they do not correspond to the existing organization before the Spanish conquest system. These communities, along with the system of organization of Tahuantinsuyo, directly appoint its highest authority: the Varayoc. For this reason, Chinchero is one of the few places where the so-called traditional form of trade in the markets kept barter.
The agriculture is the main economic activity in Chinchero. 55% Of farmers is dedicated to the cultivation of Pope, 15% for cereals, tubers under another 15%, 10% between 2 and 3% to other crops and legumes. Today as yesterday, Chinchero is considered the granary of the Cusco. In their lands emphasizes the production of sheep and cattle, although it should be mentioned the punas brought flames. Their bulls are very requested to plow the Earth. The area has very important water resources as the lagoons of Huaypo and Piuray.
Chinchero was founded in the middle of the most beautiful countryside in order to serve as a resting place to the inca Tupac Yupanqui. He there erected shrines, baths, terraces and the great Royal Palace in the year 1480. The Chronicles relate that the ruler died in dark circumstances. Some believe he was poisoned by her favorite Princess, Chiqui Ocllo, although it could also own the coya Mama Ocllo, who resented the preference of the inca by the son of his concubine. In the struggle for power were exterminated all Chiqui Ocllo supporters, including the Princess. The son of the Inca Capac Huari, was confined for lifetime in prison of Chinchero.
C. 1540, the rebel fleeing towards Vilcabamba, Manco Inca, burned Chinchero to avoid that his enemies could supply.
Chinchero possesses a rich cultural and architectural heritage. One of the few places in Cusco that preserves is visible inca urban stroke. The remains of the inca Palace, colonial church erected on a stone base, its impeccable terraces and a colorful Sunday fair are its main attractions.
The Plaza de Armas boasts a massive inca wall decorated with ten large trapezoidal niches in perfect state of conservation, and one of the most important colonial churches in the region (has baroque altars and profuse mural painting). It also gives square which was the home of Mateo Garcia Pumacahua, leader of an anti-colonial rebellion in the year 1814.
Despite located at almost 4,000 meters above sea level the landscape of Chinchero is not specifically cold puna. Its wide plateau, decorated by Piuray and Huaypo, gaps lie imposing snow-covered Salcantay, Veronica and Soray, whose shores is home to several communities dedicated to the cultivation of the potato.
According to local legends, the Sun God called Manco Capac their twin sons accompany it in its twilight. When they went to search for them, they discovered that the child who walked further away had become Huaypo Lake and the daughter in the Piuray lagoon.
The inca city of Chinchero
The current village of Chinchero and Ollantaytambo, is built entirely on an inca settlement of extraordinary extension. According to studies conducted by Jose Alcina Franch, Chinchero urban Assembly comprise a series of buildings, usually rectangular in shape. They are attached to the slopes of a hill, on platforms, almost always very elongated and low depth, especially in a northerly direction.
The set of platforms with buildings is ordered around two squares. A main square or gran plaza - the current Esplanade of Capellanpampa - and the town plaza, located at the foot of the Church. Franch argues, in a hypothetical way, that perhaps this last had a civil-military character. In the great square (60 m wide by 114 meters long) are three buildings lined up on the South side and several finely carved stones of a ceremonial nature. It's huacas that perhaps represent the mythic ancestors of the ayllus.
The town square has two levels: the highest corresponds to the atrium of the Church and the square itself below. The slope has a retaining wall decorated by twelve large niches. In the East of the village there is a large expanse of platforms
Being the city centre located on platforms, manufacturers of Chinchero used stairs and ramps to access from one platform to another. For its part, the movement was through streets and corridors, Earth rammed with stones and drainage channels. Possibly, both places were reported at the point where today there is a large portal that allows access to the square of the village.
System for the disposal of rainwater and wastewater reached - in opinion of Alcina Franch - hardly unattainable high. Perfection in the path as well as the soundness and studied graduation or slope of its channels, realizes the high skills of architects and urban planners to which Tupac Yupanqui entrusted with the task of building his residence in rest.
In the area where today is located the church you can see formidable walls of Polyhedra assemblies to perfection that make up retaining walls that give shape to the platforms. In addition, remain large rooms with Windows. An inca wall formed by twelve niches can be seen in the town square. The hornacinas have modern lithic eaves that covers them and protects over. Structures built on these terraces have mostly disappeared, but a portion of the walls is still part of the broad church.
Many of the inhabitants of Chinchero dress in the style of their ancestors. Not only during the Sunday fair, for the attention of tourists, but on a daily basis, jealously preserving its tradition. Adult male carries the typical montera, especially on Sundays and holidays. It also uses the ponchos nogales of wool, jackets and pants of cloth, as well as multicolored chullos. The feet are ancestral Sandals (ojotas), either leather or rubber.
Women chincherina, for its part, has inherited the art of yarn and wool fabric for generations. For this reason, their traditional dress retains proud. Dressed in llicllas (kind of dark blankets decorated with red and green filigree and a PIN at the height of the chest), vests and skirts of black cloth, attached to the body with straps or chumpis. In their heads, decorated by fine braids used colorful cloaks.
original source: cusco_peru.org